Garry Kasparov · Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins

Garry Kasparov · Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins


The definitive account of Kasparov’s defeat at the hands of IBM’s Deep Blue, Deep Thinking also serves as a platform for Garry Kasparov to chart AI’s evolution:

Garry Kasparov’s 1997 chess match against the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue was a watershed moment in the history of technology. It was the dawn of a new era in artificial intelligence…

p15 Leaving your comfort zone…

Are you willing to leave your comfort zone? If you aren't, get used to moving out of your comfort zone. When you move beyond your comfort zone, two things happen:

  • you learn new things; and
  • your comfort zone grows.

A comfort zone is just that, comfortable. Moving towards a place of uncomfortableness is a challenge. Don't avoid the challenge, embrace it.

p29 The “minimax” algorithm.

Unpack this. It sounds interesting. The “minimax” algorithm sounds like an efficient heuristic for evaluating possibilities and sorting them from best to worst.

This could lead to a footnote defining heuristics.

p30 A pastry at a bakery.

/* Decision Making and Pastries */

Kasparov’s analogy of selecting a pastry at a bakery explains the process a grandmaster adopts.

Expand on this idea of making selections fast and slow and taking deep occasionally within boundaries and constraints.

Unpack the Type A (brute force) and Type B (intelligent search).

Type A: Systematically searching through all of the options: outline an option, explore its potential, save or discard… dig deep.

Type B: Use a heuristic to establish a subset of possible options.

Understanding these two approaches is important. Clearly, Option A is time-consuming and inefficient. Embrace Option B, however, and you run the risk that you might overlook an option.

p31 Analogy

“A super-fast analogy engine.”

Beyond this there are different types of decision-making approaches… conscious and sub-conscious. (Refer to the chimp’s automatic brain….)

Reflex decisions. Validating intuition.

p32 The importance of undisciplined wanderings.

Even the most disciplined human mind wanders in the heat of competition. This is both a weakness and a strength of human cognition. Sometimes these undisciplined wanderings only weaken your analysis. Other times they lead to inspiration, to beautiful or paradoxical moves that were not on your initial list of candidates. —Garry Kasparov